Free will and the art object?

Executive summary

The article delves into the intricate relationship between free will and the creation of art objects, examining this through multiple lenses—determinism, personal identity, and the digital realm.

Firstly, the article questions the role of free will in artistic practices like action painting. While the spontaneous strokes of the brush may seem like an exercise of free will, the article posits that these actions are actually predetermined by neural activity and social influences. This deterministic view suggests that the art object is not a product of free will but rather a result of complex factors that include both cognitive and societal elements.

Secondly, the article explores the intriguing possibility that an art object could exist without a clearly identified artist. This raises questions about the nature of personal identity and its role in the creation of art. In such cases, the art object could be seen as a manifestation of free will, especially if it involves the transfer of intentional states from an undefined source. This adds a layer of complexity to the traditional understanding of free will in art, inviting us to consider the role of intentionality and identity.

Lastly, the article introduces the concept of digital replicas of artworks that can endlessly simulate themselves. This leads to a form of digital materialism where the replica becomes indistinguishable from the original, yet surpasses it in every possible way. This phenomenon challenges our understanding of free will in the context of art, as it blurs the lines between the creator and the creation.

In summary, the article offers a nuanced discussion on the role of free will in the creation and existence of art objects. It challenges the notion that art is solely a product of free will, suggesting instead that it is influenced by a myriad of deterministic factors. At the same time, it opens up new avenues for understanding free will through the lenses of personal identity and digital replication.

The art object as autonoma

The following argument places free will and the art object as an automation as a deterministic object. This is based on theory of transference (related articles). Consciousness transfers into art objects ostensibly through socially constructed states. There is an extreme example where the animated art object with cultural causal properties has a resemblance of a person without conscious states (form of p-zombie as philosophers example). The theory of transference entails the art object manifests through institutional structures. The evidence for this is early civilisation (Egypt) to modernity (galleries) and even in digital materialism as digital art (non-fudgable art). To unpack this further:

In the grand tapestry of philosophical discourse, the question of free will has been a recurring motif, akin to the leitmotif in a Wagnerian opera. The argument at hand posits that both free will and the art object are not autonomous entities but rather deterministic constructs. This is predicated on the theory of transference, a concept that suggests consciousness is channeled into art objects through socially constructed frameworks.

To illustrate this point, let us consider an allegorical extreme: an art object imbued with cultural significance yet devoid of conscious intent, much like the philosophical construct of a “philosophical zombie” or p-zombie. This art object, though seemingly sentient, is but a vessel for broader institutional forces. The theory of transference suggests that the art object is a manifestation not of individual will but of collective, institutional structures.

As evidence, one might traverse the annals of history, from the monumental art of ancient Egypt to the curated spaces of modern galleries, and even into the realm of digital art, with its non-fungible tokens. Each serves as a testament to the deterministic forces that shape art, much like the inexorable flow of a river carves the landscape. Thus, the art object becomes a mirror reflecting not just individual intent but the complex interplay of societal structures and norms.

The art object is a brain state.

It has manifestations of qualitative states as a neurological snap shot realisable as colour. The residual behavioural states are realisable through structural forms such as lines. Somewhat akin to what remains after a magnetic field has gone (iron filings in a position distinct from prior magnetic field). It is akin to free will and the art object boot strapping into a transcendent state space of consciousness through complex interdependent relationships with neural activity and sociological determinism. Let’s explore this further using metaphor as a philosophical intuition pump.

Imagine the art object as a snapshot of the mind, capturing a moment of thought and emotion much like a photograph captures light and color. Just as a camera’s lens focuses on a scene, the brain focuses on a specific emotional or intellectual state, translating it into art. The lines and shapes in the artwork are like footprints left in the sand, traces of the artist’s mental journey.

Think of it like a magnet that has been moved away from a pile of iron filings. Even after the magnet is gone, the iron filings remain, arranged in a pattern that reflects the magnet’s invisible force. In the same way, the art object is a lasting imprint of the artist’s mental state, shaped by both internal neural activity and external social influences.

Imagine the art object as a snapshot of the mind, capturing a moment of thought and emotion much like a photograph captures light and color. Just as a camera’s lens focuses on a scene, the brain focuses on a specific emotional or intellectual state, translating it into art. The lines and shapes in the artwork are like footprints left in the sand, traces of the artist’s mental journey.

Think of it like a magnet that has been moved away from a pile of iron filings. Even after the magnet is gone, the iron filings remain, arranged in a pattern that reflects the magnet’s invisible force. In the same way, the art object is a lasting imprint of the artist’s mental state, shaped by both internal neural activity and external social influences.

So, in essence, the art object serves as a bridge between the mind and the world, a tangible manifestation of complex interactions between personal free will and societal forces. It’s as if the art object lifts itself and the viewer into a higher realm of understanding, much like a hot air balloon rising into the sky, offering a broader view of the landscape below.

Free will as an elusion or simulated realism.

There is the niggling question of free will when it comes to certain art practices such as action painting (wiki) where notions of spontaneous action could be correlated with the philosophical concept of freewill. However one could argue that freewill is an illusion given the past facts of the self are deterministic and so too is action painting as a performance. The argument is that the action of painting, even random like strokes are deterministic. The very stroke by token that the painterly act may not predictable by the painter as the stroke was not crafted it is still causally connected to the world history. That is the hand doing the dribbling could go either way which appears free but is contained by biological determinism. There is a finite set of possible brush strokes that could be executed on the canvass as art object. If conceived from a micro neurological functionalism then the hand is connected to a set of a set of brain fibres firing which are determined by laws of physics qua cognitive an neurological states. So in this more fine grained sense the art object could never be a product of a persons free will and so it’s a free will elusion. So what could be another explanation to elusion is the deterministic nature of of institutional forces can excess a form of free will through the artist who is simulating a form of free will that is correlated with quantum indeterminacy. Therefore free will is not an elusion but is so if reduced to a biological sociolinguistic personal identity, however if personal identity is indexed to the macroscopic structures qua society the freewill argument appears plausible for creation of any art object. However the object is an artefact and not entirely attributed to one and only one person but a form of life. So put another way:

Imagine free will as a magician’s trick, a sleight of hand that captivates us in the realm of art, particularly in practices like action painting. At first glance, the artist’s spontaneous brushstrokes seem to embody free will, as unpredictable as a river’s flow. However, much like a river is confined by its banks, these strokes are not as free as they appear; they are guided by the invisible hand of biological and physical laws.

Consider the artist’s hand as a puppet on strings, controlled by a complex network of neural pathways firing in accordance with the laws of physics. In this sense, the art object is not a canvas of free will but rather a tapestry woven from predetermined threads. It’s as if the artist is a musician playing a predetermined melody, albeit with the illusion of improvisation.

Yet, there’s a twist in the tale. If we zoom out and consider the artist as part of a larger societal fabric, the notion of free will regains some credibility. It’s akin to a single note contributing to a grand symphony, where the collective expression transcends individual limitations. In this broader context, the art object becomes less an artifact of individual will and more a reflection of collective life, a communal dance to the tune of both determinism and possibility.

Free will as post materialist replication

It is imaginable for there to be artwork without an artist given personal identity paradoxes. This is a metaphysical possibility that could make the case for an authentic art work created entirely from free will. This form of of free will is associated transference of intentional states as in science fiction scenarios. A case would occur if a art work were simulated as a digital replica and that replica simulates it again and so on until a form of digital materialism emerged so as the artwork transcended the original in all possible ways yet identical to it.

Tropical art practices.

Is there such activity as ‘TROPICAL ART PRACTICES”? This article makes a case that if there is a unique feature to the art practice that makes it distinct, it might reside in what loosely might be the ‘lifestyle tropical.’ However, it’s a vague claim, but with analysis, a couple of conclusions are argued. Its how the artist might interact their practice with the wet and dry climatic conditions. It might be something to do with a conscious qualitative sense of place. 

Accumulations: dry tropical and wet tropical

Methodology for tropical accumulations

Tropical art practices include:

  • duration art is exposed to the particular locale.
  • exposure to fungi, ants, bugs, bird scat, rain, sun, spider webs.
  • inorganic as in common earth elements.
  • Cracking of paint.
  • warping of the frame
  • Expansion of paint and contraction

Between the wet and dry tropics.

This involves an authentic interaction through relocation. So the properties of a region takes on the properties of another region.

How this plays out on object art.

A non-human intentional state might be a green ant removing bits of the artwork for their purpose. The spider in need of a support. This might be a syncretic emergent form. Its a from of binary intentional agency. The human as a conceptual schema agent, the non human as a meta conceptual agent.

Site, processes and philosophy

Natural exposure for tropical art practices.

The site is the Cassowary coast, Hull river national park region. Artworks are left exposed to the natural elements as an outdoor art practice. It could be a day or for a number of month. A partial cover is placed through the tropical monsoon season. The short film gaze on nature gives an indication of this process.

Philosophical issues

The art of the rational intuition is an attempt to capture both the structural as well as anarchic elements of human intentional agency. The intentional upon the material artwork has a rational sense. This is so of the arts in general. However substance based form requires a methodological modernist consumeristic approach. The use of paraphanalia blends the rational ability to select based on normative considerations. Intuition uses a sense of purpose and reference of interpretation. Its a vague intentional act. The futile attempt to give voice to a obscure ostensible referent being the artwork.

Mixed media tropical art practices

Substance verses property based media.

Mixed media substance dualism is derived from philosophical mind/body dualism. This is a proxy for placing radically distinct substance together. Another sense of the association is that consciousness inhabits the media, or fragments of the artists intentional states. Though for the philosophical materialist the substance based mixed media might composed of combinations of media that defy normative notions of art.

Art practices with normative properties

A simple normative property based mixed media would be the traditional canvas with oil paint that is not normally considered mixed media. Another might be a photographic print on distinct paper types.

Tropical art practices with substance logics

A substance based approach to mixed media could be embedding a fine art print into fibreglass. Then by covering it with a resin the object photo is a unified interactive substance. This concept is akin to mind/body dualism of the Cartesian variety. However the mind body problem posses the logical fallacy. This is because non physical substance cannot logically interact with physical substances. The implication for mixed media methodology is that the substances may not interact and so fall apart. This cutting edge level of experiment is therefore contingent on supervening factors.

Syncretic gnostic emergent art.

Tropical art practices and syncretism

The essential shift in consciousness is one I noticed in the `1970’s at Mission beach while on a fruit orchard property. Jack Hare and his wife lived on the property at Bingal Bay. He lived what I now consider the idyllic tropical lifestyle. That is, his English ways had transformed in ways of syncretic naturalism. His skin was tawny and brown. Even in summer, he would swim in the ocean each day despite the danger of marine stingers. It was as if the tropics were reflected in the lived experience through form and action.

A Tropical Sublime Gnostic

Firstly there is some notion of a Tropical living experience. It is about tangible interconnecting lifestyles. People exist in distinct geopolitical tropical zones. This sense of an interpersonal phenomenology of being in a tropical zone becomes sublime since it transcends normative accounts of beauty. At the core, it is a sublime that straddles the tropical humidity and heat that transcend the modernist determinants of culture. This gnostic sense of what it is like to be a form of life possibly gives to a tropical art practice style. Its authenticity over the representational modes or learned methodology.

Emergent conceptualism, intuitional logics.

Probably best to begin with what is meant by intuitional logic. Formal logics deal with deductive and inductive logic. So of the superficial form: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal. Intuitional logic would not disagree with this logic. However, the conclusion, according to intuition, may come to be Socrates is immortal. The premises true but with an absurd conclusion. However, absurdity may indicate a genuine philosophical problem.

Expressionistic tropical experimentation

This may be a non-rational logic and so non-scientific or mathematical in structure. Nevertheless, it is a sense of primordialism based on deep humanism. The absurd that forms the basis for the emergent conceptualism of going tropical is the sense of impulsive rationalism. The concept ’emergent’ fails to gain traction in the world of functionalism—however, it is the basis for forms of expressionistic experimentation that lead to vistas of possibilities.

Philosophy: ART OBJECTS

Art Objects as a modal realism

The sections take on the big question relating to art objects. The first section surveys a key influence from early modern philosophy. A turn in ontological realism came around the turn of the Twenth century. However, it is new theories of mind influenced by quantum emergence that impact the conception of outdoor art as a genera.

Early modernist philosophy primer for surveying art objects.

The article initially introduces early modern philosophy from the main blog, Outdoor art, introduction. This further analysis is in part due to the enduring appeal the this classic mechanistic world view that at the time replaced the classic Roman/Greco Aristotelian concept of objects. A paradigm shift gave way to relativity, and with that modernism. There are articles that go into philosophical issues that modernism bring up, and those are linked to throughout this article.

Philosophy of aesthetic functionalism

Substance functionalism and early modern philosophy.

The question being, could an art object be distinguished from general things? It is from ‘real essences’ things are known through primary and secondary qualities (introductory article). However real essences are abstractions, and what makes an object distinct and discreate is the object has nominal essences. It is these nominal essences that are mind dependent, and therefore have modes of distinct categories.

Objects that are nominal essences

Objects acquire human definitions are nominal essences. These definitions are super mental entities allowing people to communicate that which is apart from the nature of the objects real essence. So for Locke we should be sceptical about our ability to know the real nature of ordinary things. However human perception requires distinct and meaningful objects. So using the clock analogy. It has an internal structure known by the maker who knows its real essence, but not necessarily by the user of the device. The example Locke gives is of a ‘gazing country man’ who marvels at a grand clock towers appearance, but not its internal workings. This is what Locke thought of how humans understand general discreate objects.

Solidity and modes as a method to view the art object.

So for Locke to know ordinal objects required some way to go beyond the primary qualities and secondary qualities of things. That is an objects real essences render objects as unknowable. The analogy given is a clock maker. The clock maker knowns the internal working of the clock better than a staring country man. Locke refers to solidity of objects as a general object of knowledge that at the time praised Newton for a theory of attraction of solid objects.

Early modernist world view from atomist perspective.

The question of what sort of knowledge holds as empirically valid about general appearances has an implicit impact on the art object and if it could even exist outside as a entity. The shelter contains aesthetical things of value which are framed, or placed on some familiar structure. Locke thought this had to do with geometry as a measure of human knowledge.

It is because we know the real essences of geometrical figures that that subject consists of ‘certain and universal knowledge’ obtained by a priori intuition or demonstration. But we do not know the real essences of the substances of natural philosophy, so all that we can do is to observe and list their properties, and form only beliefs and opinions about them.

The Empiricists. R.S. Woolhouse

Early modernism Empiricism and outdoor art.

A set of universals, such as geometry, and sense phenomenon, such as colour, can be known. However, these universals make little sense when applied to discrete objects. So, nominal essences give the art object its particular properties. These properties become vague as they refer to entities outside the human sphere of influence, and it is this where outside art sets itself as a vague object of knowledge.

What further articles survey early modernism.

Nature of consciousness and art objects further extends Locke’s account of modes that seeks out certain discourses around formalism, as well as Descartes substance dualism that concludes that art is for Descartes about truth, so well suited for the media age of photo journalism. (article still being compiled for publication)

Tropical abstract compositional art as a formalism from early modernism epistemology.

Outdoor art is akin to a form of metaphysics that translates into the particular order in the modernist system. It many well pertain to a tropical metaphysics that I discuss further in the philosophy of modal realism. The sense of being within a complex tropical system renders the art object as a abstract art form. The role of finding profound representations of any system maybe the role of artist as distinct from the technical roles within manufacture.

This search for truth as an art object may be a conscious by-product of the macro universe, and so an intrinsic abstract impulse shared by all humans.

The moving image and digital modernity.

Multi compositional art forms

Multi compositional art forms

The depiction of projected graphics images on CBD structures and the urban raw is an example of the moving image supervening on city environments. The genera of street and urban photography is a great example where the enthusiast can engage in a grassroots sense with urban renewal through photography. There are various photographic methods for this though my favourite is exploring compositional potentials through the use of various camera angles so as to best place the print within a mixed media context for compositional art..

International travel as philosophical idealism.

Intentional states

  • Essentialist point of self reference for art production.
  • Situationist materialist approach to composition.
  • Intentionality as unitary or multi layered modal (could be that).
  • Intentionality supervenes art object.
Graphic image that illustrates the theory of a multi compositional art object

Ashram art, India

What has this to do with my art practice?

Since returning from my 2004 travels through India I took up sculpture that produced artforms influenced by certain philosophical schools from the sub continent.

The context of art denotes the pursuit of humanistic concerns  through outdoor art. It is because of this constrained perspective the overview takes only a small section that I have personally encountered in greater and lesser degrees of participation since 1984

Artistic mobilization for outdoor art communities

The sculpture and outdoor art in general are influenced by the following inter cultural factors.

  • reformist Hindu movements
  • have a strong international following, as within Osho commune
  • Affiliated with United Nations as do the Brahma Kumaris
  • advocate forms of ego transcendence through meditation, as a methodology of Ramana
  • art in a liberal sense of free expression to integrate personal identity over time. as Aurobindo

Modes of artistic activity

Neo transcendentalism through art

A feature most prominent in the groups I encountered from 1984 up to 2018 is a commitment to transcend the standard ways of thinking and perceiving a person. I explore this notion in the article A sculptural odyssey. This is where the idea of a soul as the animate feature of the human animal takes on ascriptive resemblances to a stone sculpture. The act of sculpting the icon gives the inanimate stone a animate soul like property through name and form. What is new about this in a modern capitalist phase of industrial production is the art as a mode of production that also acts as a humanistic pursuit for transcendence from the animate into the icon’s vision. 

What is angular momenta?

Artworks as particles

The intentionality of these works

There is a philosophical impulse to this project. It is the theory of extending memory as art object from a locale. It theorizes modes of semantic associations. There is an association between marks. Each mark projecting into a possible world. This depicts by the angular nature the artwork. The assemblage ascribes its positionality where the momenta is a position in relation to the anchor points. An anchor point on the periphery of a boundary acts as a space time, or box type universe. The box is a simple monad structure resembling a poverty of complexity but not profoundly interesting to observe.

Art of Personal identity.

Derek Parfit’s exploration of personal identity, particularly through his thought experiments like the teleportation paradox, offers a compelling framework to delve deeper into the philosophical nuances of identity in relation to art creation and perception. The distinction between the Ego Theory and Bundle Theory provides a fertile ground for expanding this argument, especially when applied to the creation and interpretation of art objects.

Ego Theory vs. Bundle Theory in Personal Identity

  1. Ego Theory: This perspective posits that a human being persists as a mental entity – a soul or spirit – that remains constant over time. In the context of creating art, this theory would suggest that the person who starts an art project is fundamentally the same as the person who completes it. The artwork, therefore, is a reflection or manifestation of this unchanging soul or spirit. It implies a continuous and cohesive identity that underpins and authorizes the artwork.
  2. Bundle Theory: Contrasting the Ego Theory, the Bundle Theory posits that a person is a collection of mental states and events without an underlying, unchanging self. Here, identity is fluid and is constantly redefined by experiences and perceptions. In the realm of art, this theory suggests that the artist who begins a project is not exactly the same as the one who completes it, as their identity is an ever-changing bundle of experiences and mental states. The artwork, in this case, becomes a snapshot of a particular phase in the artist’s life, reflecting the transient and ever-evolving nature of their identity.

Application to Art Objects

  1. Art Object as Ego: If we adopt the Ego Theory in the context of art, we would view an art object as an extension or expression of the artist’s soul or spirit. The art piece would be seen as a statement of the artist’s enduring identity, carrying with it the essence of the artist’s unchanging self. It stands as a testament to the artist’s singular vision and individuality, a fixed point in the flux of experiences and perceptions.
  2. Art Object as Bundle: In the Bundle Theory perspective, an art object is contingent upon a series of mental events and states. It does not represent an unchanging soul but rather a particular moment or phase in the artist’s life. The art piece is seen as a culmination of various influences, experiences, and perceptions that the artist has encountered. It is fluid and dynamic, much like the identity of the artist, and speaks to the social and cultural contexts that shape the artist’s temporary identity at a particular time.

Philosophical Implications

  • Ego Theory and Artistic Authenticity: If one subscribes to the Ego Theory, questions about the authenticity of art and the artist’s singular vision become paramount. The artwork is valued as a direct conduit to the artist’s inner self, making issues of originality and authorship critical.
  • Bundle Theory and Artistic Evolution: Under the Bundle Theory, the focus shifts to the evolutionary nature of art and identity. Art is appreciated as part of a continuum, with each piece marking a point in the artist’s ever-changing perspective and identity. It celebrates the dynamic nature of art, where the meaning and significance of a piece can shift over time.

In conclusion, Parfit’s theories offer a profound lens through which we can examine the nature of art and the artist’s identity. Whether viewed through the prism of the Ego Theory or the Bundle Theory, art stands as a profound reflection of the complexities and nuances of personal identity, challenging our perceptions of selfhood and creativity.

This thought experiment, inspired by Derek Parfit’s teleportation paradox, presents a fascinating philosophical conundrum involving the concepts of personal identity, artistic creation, and ownership. Let’s explore this scenario for logical flow and clarity, considering the implications of both the ego theory and the bundle theory.

Scenario Setup

  • Premise: An artist enters an isolated pod and starts an art project (sculpting a block of marble), with their brain states and cellular structure being recorded.
  • Twist: Unbeknownst to them, a replica artist is created in another pod at the opposite end of the Earth, starting an identical art project simultaneously. The artworks produced are indistinguishable in every visible aspect.

Analysis: Ego Theory vs. Bundle Theory

  1. Ego Theory Implications:
    • Assumption: There are two bodies but only one original ego or soul.
    • Artistic Ownership: The artwork, in this theory, is attributed to the one and only original ego or soul.
    • Paradox: While there are two physical artworks, the ego theorist would argue that they are expressions of a single soul. Thus, both artworks, though physically distinct, are spiritually and conceptually one, raising questions about the uniqueness and ownership of the artwork.
  2. Bundle Theory Implications:
    • Assumption: There are two identical sets of physical and mental processes.
    • Artistic Ownership: Each artwork is attributed to the distinct set of physical and mental processes that created it.
    • Paradox: In this view, both artworks are original since they are the products of two separate, though identical, sets of experiences and thoughts. This leads to a paradox where each artwork is both an original and a replica, challenging the notion of individuality in art.

Philosophical Paradoxes and Questions

  1. Originality and Authenticity:
    • Ego Theory: If there’s one soul, does it diminish the uniqueness of each artwork?
    • Bundle Theory: If both are original, what does it mean for the concept of individual artistic creation?
  2. Ownership and Attribution:
    • Ego Theory: The concept of ownership becomes nebulous if there’s one soul behind two physical artworks.
    • Bundle Theory: While each artwork can be attributed to a distinct set of experiences, the identical nature of these experiences challenges traditional notions of ownership and authorship.
  3. Concept of Self and Artistic Expression:
    • Ego Theory: Raises questions about the role of the self in artistic creation – is the art a reflection of a singular soul, regardless of physical duplication?
    • Bundle Theory: Puts forward a view of art as a momentary expression of a constantly changing bundle of experiences and thoughts, where replication does not diminish uniqueness.


This thought experiment intriguingly highlights the philosophical complexities surrounding concepts of self, originality, and ownership in art. Whether viewed through the lens of the ego theory or the bundle theory, it challenges our traditional understanding of what it means to create and own a piece of art, especially in an age where replication and duplication are increasingly feasible. Each theory offers a unique perspective on the relationship between the artist’s identity and their creative output, opening up a rich field for philosophical exploration and debate.

A sculptural odyssey: learn stone sculpture, India.

Outdoor sculpture

Outdoor art as a international travellers’ tale

So outdoor art has a general philosophy which I discuss in depth in my outdoor art: a philosophical guide. However this is about a traveller narrative that can be excessed in full on my journey in 2017/18. It is through a series of journal style accounts I discuss a sculpture travel journey as a mode of influence can lead to pursuits such as stone sculpture tuition if the traveller extends their boundaries.

Transformative experiences

Therefore the odyssey emerges as a form of life. Its the self through the passage of time that could be in theory, not a passage but interconnected points in a complex matrix. What I am suggesting is by taking up a project like sculpture tuition it can be a profoundly transformative experience.

Street sculptural matrix/passage

After a few months of travel that began in the Himalayan region, I landed once again (last time was 2004) at the tropical seaside stone sculpture port town of Mahabalipuram. It was a comfortable place to recuperate from stressful bus trips and cycling through many challenging road types. Soon I came across an out of the way accommodation with a family unit who the notion of a sculpture travel journey. It was only a day later I came upon a non-aligned soft stone sculptor who made intricately carved animals for the tourist market. He was interested in taking on small paid projects between his contracts with established sculpture workshops, which employed him on a contract basis. 

We came upon an agreed price for sculpture tuition to do a week-long project with the help of a polisher and carrier who positioned the stone as well as was an aid to bring tools, tea, and assorted tasks. The place for street sculpture began in what appeared to be an abandoned construction, which was the family estate, on hold due to a lack of finance set in a back street. I could walk to the beach and shop for a getaway when I had enough grinding hard black granite.

The nature of time and art

A notion of past present and future seems simple to understand. I exist at a present though my memories are of past, while my intentions are about possible future states of affairs. The self exists within modernity as a vague cultural object. The artworks presented ostensibly represent this process, as the fish moves into the future, leaving its past behind depicted on the other side of the plate. The present being the ridge joining the two sides.



An A theory or time and the B theory of time.

This relates simple to a couple of theories of time. The A theory simply places time as a past, present and future states, where as the B theory of time places a before and after as the only relevant states to explain time.

So what has this to do with creating a tangible artform. The methodology of a theory of time will have a profound impact on the sort of artform. The A theory of time is more in line with a humanist approach to nature whereas the B theory of time is akin to the scientific view of nature. The classic analogy is the rationalist figurative approach that resembles the neo classic refinement placing the human form at the centre of the universe followed by Romanticism that place the human within a turbulent natural world. The modernist phase really took all figurative elements apart leaving a before and after series of events that aligns with the B theory of time.